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Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy

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The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.


Some substances and agents, used as livestock feed additives, could have an important role to play in delivering sustainable increases in productivity and simultaneous reductions in damaging pollutants. This research project aimed to identify livestock feed additives which may have potential benefits for the environment and create an inventory of these which included other relevant scientific and descriptive data. This is the final report of the project. It provides a detailed description of the methodology used and the research findings.

The project considered over 620 scientific publications, reports and other documents which led to data for around 300 studies and 246 substances and agents with potential to be used as feed additives to be reviewed. Of the 246 substances and agents explored, 130 were found to offer potential benefits to the environment and, for some substances, the benefits could be very significant. In addition to data on efficacy the study also considered scientific methodologies, analytical approaches and statistical techniques used within the studies. The project also collated data relating to the physicochemical properties, and human and wildlife toxicity for each of the 130 substances and agents.