Refined exposure assessment for Quinoline Yellow (E 104)

Quinoline Yellow, E 104, dietary exposure, EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, food colours
First published in the EFSA Journal
25 Marzo 2015
23 Marzo 2015
Statement of EFSA


The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an exposure assessment of Quinoline Yellow (E 104), taking into account additional information on its use in foods. In 2009, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Quinoline Yellow (E 104) and concluded that, at the maximum usage levels, refined intake estimates were generally well above the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 was amended by the European Commission as regards the conditions of use such that Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs), when not withdrawn (n = 14), were decreased by a factor of 1.1 to 50, depending on the food category, applicable from 1 June 2013 onwards. Following this, the European Commission requested EFSA to perform a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Quinoline Yellow (E 104) in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and analytical data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for 6 out of 28 food categories in which Quinoline Yellow (E 104) is authorised. In addition, 6 266 analytical results were reported. Following the amendment of Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008, exposure estimates for Quinoline Yellow (E 104) presented in this statement were based on the currently authorised MPLs and analytical levels combined with food consumption data from the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three scenarios were considered: (1) exposure estimates based on MPLs, (2) a refined brand-loyal exposure scenario and (3) a refined non-brand-loyal exposure scenario. Mean and high-level exposure estimates of Quinoline Yellow (E 104) were below the ADI for all population groups in all three scenarios.

European Food Safety Authority
fip [at]
EFSA Journal 2015;13(3):4070
Question Number
On request from
European Commission