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Methodologies guide scientists through the scientific process by providing a step-by-step framework for:

  • what to answer – describing the precise nature of the scientific question and what is outside of scope. Scientists often refer to this as the “ problem formulation The process of defining the specific problem being addressed in, for example, an environmental risk assessment. It involves articulating a question and defining how it may be answered (e.g. by identifying the endpoints to be measured).”.
  • which evidence to collect and use
    • identifying the scientific evidence relevant for an assessment
    • if needed, complementing evidence from observations (e.g. studies on animals or cells) with other sources or methods (e.g. expert knowledge)
    • evaluating quality of scientific evidence and analysing it in a structured, consistent and traceable way

    • document the process for dealing with evidence transparently.
  • how to make decisions – providing a transparent, rational and accountable process for scientific decisions so that the process can be repeated by other scientists.