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Modelling human variability in toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes using Bayesian meta‐analysis, physiologically‐based modelling and in vitro systems

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Disclaimer:The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s). The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It cannot be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European Food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.

Abstract

This external scientific report summarises the results from thearticle 36 grant GA/EFSA/SCER/2015/01″Modelling human variability in toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes using Bayesian meta‐analysis, physiologically‐based (PB) modelling and in vitro systems”. Extensive literature searches, data collection and modelling of human variability in toxicokinetics (TK) (phase I, Phase II enzymes and transporters) and toxicodynamics (TD) are summarised and further elaborated in supplementary material and EFSA knowledge junction, open source databases(MS Excel) and peer reviewed publications (objective 1 and 2). In addition,in vitro TK and TD information from laboratory studies and literature searches are summarised for a range of case studies relevant to EFSA including pesticides (i.e. triflumuron, chlorpyrifos, phosmet), natural toxins (e.g. microcystin variants, mycotoxins), food additives and polyphenols (i.e. resveratrol, tyrosol), food additives as well as drugs (i.e.amiodarone). These include isoform‐specific metabolism and kinetic parameters for single chemicals and inhibition constants for multiple chemicals (TK) and identification of molecular targets (TD). Finally, generic quantitative in vitro in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) models, PB‐kinetic (PBK) and PBK‐dynamic (PBKD) models were developed in the R freeware, calibrated and validated usingcase studies for single and multiple chemicals. Supplementary material and model codes are available on EFSA knowledge junction. The results are in line with EFSA priorities for the implementation of the use of new approach methodologies (NAMs) for human risk assessment (RA) of chemicals and the need to develop open source TK TD databases data and PB‐K and PB‐KD models have been identified as key steps of this process. Future perspectives are discussedincluding the integration of pathway‐related variability and generic human QIVIVE and PB‐K models and PB‐K‐D models into TKplate, a Toxicokinetic Modelling Platform under development in EFSA.

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