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Risk assessment of rare earth elements, antimony, barium, boron, lithium, tellurium, thallium and vanadium in teas

on the Wiley Online Library

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Abstract

In recent years, a great intensification in the use of various elements especially in modern technology can be observed. However, the anthropogenic activities, including industrialisation, urbanisation or intensive agriculture, have led to the release of many of the elements into the environment. The consequence of the accumulation of the elements both in soil and water systems is their presence in the food chain. Inhalation and consumption of the contaminated food and beverages have been indicated as the main pathways of the exposure to many elements. Due to the fact, that tea is considered the second most popular beverage worldwide and its consumption is constantly increasing, it is crucial to evaluate the safety of the product, especially for toxic elements contamination. Thus, the aim of the project was to evaluate the contamination levels of rare earth elements (REEs) including lanthanides, scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) and also antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), boron (B), lithium (Li), tellurium (Te), thallium (Tl) and vanadium (V) in teas. Subsequently, the risk assessment was carried out. Additionally, the Fellowship provided hands‐on training on the evaluation of applications of new biocides and participation in the science‐based advises given to the Danish Food and Veterinary Administration, Danish Environment Protection Agency and Danish Medical Agency.