Beekeeping is an ancient tradition, and honey bees have been kept in Europe for several millennia. Bees are critically important in the environment, sustaining biodiversity by providing essential pollination for a wide range of crops and wild plants. They contribute to human wealth and wellbeing directly through the production of honey and other food and feed supplies such as: pollen, wax for food processing, propolis in food technology, and royal jelly as a dietary supplement and ingredient in food.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that of the 100 crop species that provide 90% of food worldwide, 71 are pollinated by bees. The majority of crops grown in the European Union depend on insect pollination. Beyond the essential value of pollination to maintaining biodiversity, the global annual monetary value of pollination has been estimated at hundreds of billions of euros.
In view of the important ecological and economic value of bees, there is a need to monitor and maintain healthy bee stocks, not just locally or nationally, but globally.
Over the past 10 to 15 years, beekeepers have been reporting unusual weakening of bee numbers and colony losses, particularly in Western European countries including France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain.
No single cause of declining bee numbers has been identified. However, several possible contributing factors have been suggested, acting in combination or separately. These include the effects of intensive agriculture and pesticide use, starvation and poor bee nutrition, viruses, attacks by pathogens and invasive species – such as the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor), the Asian hornet (Vespa velutina), and the small hive beetle Aethina tumida and environmental changes (e.g. habitat fragmentation and loss).
In 2009 EFSA published a report, Bee Mortality and Bee Surveillance in Europe, that made a number of recommendations to improve surveillance as well as identifying consensus across the EU on the multifactorial origins of the decline in bee numbers. It helped to shape the Commission’s strategy for tackling the decline in bee numbers across Europe, which was clarified in a key communication on honey bee health published in 2010.
In February 2012 the Pesticides Unit reviewed the risk of thiamethoxam to honeybees, as requested by the European Commission, on the basis of new information submitted. Thiamethoxam is a member of the neonicotinoid group of insecticides, which some studies suggest could be a contributing factor to bee colony losses.
In June 2012 the Pesticides Unit delivered a statement on two articles published in the journal Science which suggested links between neonicotinoids and bee colony survival. The first article highlighted research showing that honey bees exposed to sub-lethal doses of thiamethoxam suffer from impaired orientation skills, and concluded that commonly encountered concentrations of thiamethoxam can contribute to the collapse of colonies. The second article concluded that imidacloprid, another neonicotinoid, can inhibit the reproductive health of bumble bees. The European Commission asked EFSA to examine whether the doses used in the studies were comparable to the actual doses to which bees are exposed.
- Statement on the findings in recent studies investigating sub-lethal effects in bees of some neonicotinoids in consideration of the uses currently authorised in Europe
EFSA continued its work in this area by carrying out risk assessments of the potential effects on bees of thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and clothianidin. The assessments, published in January 2013, paid particular attention to acute and chronic effects on bee colony survival and development, taking into account the effects on bee larvae as well as bee behaviour.
- Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin
- Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid
- Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam
In May 2013 EFSA performed a risk assessment of the insecticide fipronil, paying particular regard to the possible acute, chronic and sub-lethal effects on bees. Later that month more than 100 bee experts attended the Authority’s Scientific Colloquium on holistic approaches to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in bees.
- Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance fipronil
In July 2013 EFSA published a major guidance document on the risk assessment of pesticides in relation to honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. The groundwork for this was laid in April 2012 when the PPR Panel published an opinion outlining the scientific basis for the development of the guidance document.
- Guidance on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)
- Scientific Opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of Plant Protection Products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)
In January 2013 experts from EFSA’s Animal Health and Welfare Panel published a scientific opinion on the risk of introduction and spread in the EU of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) and the Tropilaelaps bee mite through the importation from third countries of live bees and bee products, and of products such as fruit and vegetables.
In line with the strategy of EFSA to consider risk assessments in a wider, more integrated manner so as to provide risk managers with comprehensive advice on which to base their decisions, the Authority established in May 2012 an internal task force drawn from the relevant Units to compile a state-of-the-art review of the work carried out at EFSA, as well as the current activities conducted outside EFSA, in the area of bees.
The task force, coordinated by the EFSA staff, published two reports. The first, published in November 2012, gave an overview of EFSA’s current activities and made recommendations on how this work should be continued. The second, published in March 2014 in cooperation with the European Commission and Member States, looked at the work on bee risk assessment being carried out across the EU. It highlighted knowledge gaps and suggested research that would assist the development of a harmonised environmental risk assessment scheme for bees.
EFSA has an important role to play in ensuring that healthy bee stocks are maintained in Europe, given its mandate to improve EU food safety and animal health and to ensure a high level of consumer protection. A number of the Authority’s Scientific Panels and Units contribute to this work, principally in the areas of pesticides, animal health and welfare and plant health, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), data collection and scientific assessment.
Central to this work are the assessments EFSA carries out of the environmental safety of pesticides and GMOs that manufacturers would like to place on the EU market. EFSA’s Pesticides Unit is responsible for the peer review of risk assessments of active substances used in plant protection products. The dossiers submitted by applicants must contain comprehensive information on the potential risk to the environment posed by their products.
The Unit also carries out risk assessments of Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) of active substances in pesticides. These assessments take account of the potential effects of the substances on the environment in general and on non-target organisms such as bees in particular. The Unit compiles the annual European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food, which gives an overview of the control activities performed in the 27 EU Member States and two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway) in order to ensure compliance of food with the standards defined in European legislation on pesticide residues. The most recent report, for 2009, shows that only 0.1% of honey samples contained pesticides which exceeded MRLS.
EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) provides independent scientific advice on the risk assessment of plant protection products and their residues. This includes in particular looking at risks to operators, workers, residents and consumers as well as the environment, including wildlife. One of the main activities of the PPR Panel is to develop new or review existing guidance documents on the risk assessment of pesticides, including the development of risk assessment approaches, methodologies and models. The Panel may provide opinions on the effects of specific active substances used in plant protection products or on any generic issue related to the safe use of pesticides.
GMOs and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis before they can be placed on the EU market. In this process, the role of the GMO Panel is to independently evaluate the risk assessments provided by companies and manufacturers and to give scientific advice to risk managers on any risks that GMOs may pose to human and animal health and the environment. The assessment covers several specific aspects of risk, one of which is the possible risk to “non-target organisms” such as bees. The Panel has developed guidelines for the safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed that assist companies and manufacturers to prepare applications for the authorisation of GM plants. In 2010, the GMO Panel updated its guidance with respect to environmental risk assessment of GM plants, and specific guidance has been developed on the evaluation of possible effects of GM plants on non-target organisms.
In addition, each application for authorisation of a GM plant has to be accompanied by a Post-Market Environmental Monitoring (PMEM) plan demonstrating how the applicant will monitor the GM plant for possible adverse environmental effects after it has been placed lawfully on the EU market. The aim of PMEM is to identify possible unanticipated adverse effects on the environment which could arise directly or indirectly from cultivation of GM plants. In 2006, EFSA’s GMO Panel provided applicants with guidance for developing PMEM plans, which was updated in 2011. Since 2010, the GMO Panel has been responsible for assessing the annual PMEM reports which are submitted to the European Commission for each GM crop authorised for cultivation in the EU (currently maize MON810 and the Amflora potato).
The Panel on Plant Health provides independent scientific advice on the risks posed by organisms which can cause harm to plants, plant products or plant biodiversity in the European Community. Every pest risk assessment includes the assessment of environmental risk, but to clarify and harmonise approaches in this area the Panel has published specific guidance on the environmental risk assessment of plant pests. EFSA’s work in the area of plant health is specifically relevant to bee health as some pests that are a threat to bees can be transported by, and live on, plants. The small hive beetle, for example, can live without bees, surviving on fruit and vegetables. It could therefore be introduced into the EU in consignments of such products.
The Panel on Animal Health and Welfare provides independent scientific advice on all aspects of animal diseases and animal welfare. Its work chiefly concerns food-producing animals.
EFSA publishes an annual report summarising data on the presence of residues of veterinary medicinal products and other substances in live animals and animal products – such as honey – in the European Union. The latest report, for 2010, shows that only 0.33 % of the 418,081 targeted samples were non-compliant, a similar figure to that recorded in 2009 (0.32%).
In 2010 the European Commission issued a Communication on Honeybee Health, which clarified the key issues related to bee health and the key actions that the Commission is taking to address them.
Animal health and welfare
Bees are covered by the Animal Health Strategy for the European Union 2007-2013, and legislation on animal health certification and requirements for the movement of bees between Member States (Directive 92/65/EEC). These requirements are intended to prevent and control a number of bee diseases and pests such as the the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) and the Tropilaelaps mite, which can spread via the movement of bees and trade in hive products, plants and fruit. There are also animal health requirements for imports from third countries of live bees and bumble bees to avoid introduction into the EU of exotic bee diseases. These have been applied since 2000 (Regulation 206/2010).
The Animal Health Strategy is intended to provide a single and clear regulatory framework for animal health. The Commission is currently preparing a proposal for an Animal Health Law which will over time replace the current basic veterinary legislation of almost 60 Directives and Regulations on animal health conditions for trade and import of live animals and their products. The Commission is still assessing possible implications for the bee sector. However, a general Animal Health Law could provide the legal framework for essential elements such as general definitions, and principles for disease control measures and movements, while other elements could be established through delegated or implementing acts.
Pesticide residues may be taken up by bees during the collection of nectar and/or pollen and water. A Regulation was adopted in 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market, replacing Council Directive 91/414/EEC. The new Regulation – 1107/2009 – maintains the provision that pesticides can be approved at EU level only if their use has no unacceptable effect on bee health or leads to negligible exposure of honey bees. This regime is underpinned by MRLs, which are set to protect consumers and to make trade possible in products containing residues. MRLs for pesticide residues are set in the framework of Regulation 396/2005.
Genetically modified organisms
Before a GMO can be used or cultivated, it must be authorised under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003 following a thorough scientific evaluation by EFSA that includes the potential adverse effects on bees.
The aim of the EU plant health regime, established by Council Directive 2000/29/EC, is to prevent the introduction of organisms harmful to plants or plant products or their spread within the EU. Every pest risk assessment includes the assessment of environmental risks.
Residues of veterinary medicinal products in foodstuffs of animal origin
Regulation 37/2010 establishes maximum limits for residues of veterinary medicinal products in animals and animal products, including honey. Council Directive 96/23/EC lays down measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof, mainly veterinary medicinal products, in live animals and animal products. Additionally, Commission Decision 97/747/EC lays down levels and frequencies of sampling for certain animal products.
In early 2015 EFSA launched a major project to develop a holistic approach to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees (MUST-B).
The MUST-B project draws on EFSA’s expertise in areas such as animal and plant health, data collection and analysis, modelling, pesticides and environmental risk, but will also involve a range of experts and stakeholders from beyond EFSA. It comprises a number of interlinked activities that are being carried out either in-house or in collaboration with external experts, researchers and bodies such as EU Member States, the European Commission, EU sister agencies, and the European Reference Laboratory for Bee Health.
The project is being overseen by a Working Group made up of experts from a variety of scientific backgrounds. A number of relevant activities have been completed or are under way. These include:
- A Statement on the suitability of the BEEHAVE model for use in a regulatory context and for the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees at landscape level (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues).
- A statistical analysis of the large dataset on bee mortality collected for the EPILOBEE project.
- A Scientific Opinion on the definition of a healthy bee colony (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare).
- A report on developing a model for bee risk assessment (MUST-B Working Group).
- An EU workshop on bee health and sustainable pollination.
- A report on the toxicity of exposure to multiple chemicals in bees and modelling the effect on bee population dynamics using DEB-TOX models.
- A Scientific opinion on the risk of survival, establishment and spread of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) in the EU (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare).
The project will culminate in an overarching Scientific Opinion that will bring together and synthesise the findings of the various activities.