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Preparatory work for the future development of animal based measures for assessing the welfare of pig - Report 2: Preparatory work for the future development of animal based measures for assessing the welfare of weaned, growing and fattening pigs including aspects related to space allowance, floor types, tail biting and need for tail docking

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The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as authors. In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the authors in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority and the authors. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the European Food Safety Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by EFSA. EFSA reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.


The EFSA Animal Health and Welfare panel is requested to develop several scientific opinions concerning animal based measures to assess the welfare of livestock animals. Before this work can start, it is important that conclusions and recommendations of the EFSA scientific opinions are up to date. The main objective of this report is to review the pig welfare literature to identify gaps and potential areas to strengthen or amend three recent pig welfare opinions: one on the welfare of Fattening pigs (2007), another on Space allowances and floor design (2005) and a final one on Tail biting (2007). The literature review was done by a group of authors and reviewers, under the supervision of an editorial team. Over 200 new scientific literature references are quoted. Regarding the first opinion, this review presents 11 new or revised conclusions. In addition it suggests several new recommendations. These include suggestions for maximum noise levels and ammonia levels, and minimum light duration. Furthermore, attention is drawn to the need of pigs to cool themselves when ambient temperature is high. Finally, the recommendations also emphasise the need to further study the relationship between space allowance and negative social behaviours. Regarding the second opinion, it draws 5 conclusions. The recommendations predominantly confirm those in the original opinion, but also emphasise the need for a well maintained substrate to reduce leg problems and gastric ulcers. For the third opinion, 10 new conclusions are added. The recommendations include the monitoring of tail length at the slaughter line, and the use of new management and housing information to avoid the need for tail docking. It also suggests that an intact curly tail can be regarded as the single most important welfare indicator in finishing pigs.