This discussion paper sets forth a conceptual framework, a step-by-step methodology and a plan for the transformation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) into an Open Science organisation over the next five years. Transparency (access to data, information and documents) and openness (engagement) have been key values for EFSA since its creation in 2003. Adherence to these values helps to legitimise EFSA’s work and ensure accountability to society. The Open EFSA initiative aims to explore how EFSA can better meet society’s expectations now in EFSA’s second decade as the EU food safety system’s scientific risk assessor. It also aims to understand the implications that increased openness and transparency could have for the Authority’s organisational set up. The Open EFSA initiative will follow three key steps: by the end of 2014, EFSA will finalise a list of possible actions that should be subject to a cost/benefit analysis; from 2015, as and when each cost/benefit analysis is completed EFSA will develop a plan to prioritise each action considering their added value; finally, from 2016 onwards, EFSA will roll out the actions as and when possible.