Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, palladium metal and hydrogen gas, for use in active food contact materials

palladium metal, hydrogen gas, CAS No 7440-05-3, CAS No 1333-74-0, food contact materials, active and intelligent materials, safety assessment
First published in the EFSA Journal
6 February 2014
29 January 2014
Scientific Opinion


This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances palladium metal (CAS No 7440-05-3, FCM No 993) and hydrogen gas (CAS No 1333-74-0, FCM No 1038), which are intended to be used as an oxygen scavenger in packages of foods and beverages at room temperature or below. The active article is designed as a gas permeable but liquid impermeable laminated pad, which is placed within a cap or closure or as an adhesive label on tray lids. The palladium metal is not in direct contact with the food being separated from it by different layers of passive materials. The specific migration of palladium metal into conventional food simulants was not detected at the limit of quantification of 0.6 µg/kg. Palladium was considered to be non genotoxic and of no toxicological concern under a low exposure level resulting from a concentration up to 50 µg/kg food in a previous evaluation (EFSA CEF Panel, 2012). Based on these previously drawn conclusions and given the intended conditions of use leading to non-detectable migration, the CEF Panel concluded that the active substances palladium and hydrogen do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as an oxygen scavenger in packages for foods and beverages at room temperatures or below. Palladium should not be in direct contact with food and should be incorporated in a passive structure impermeable to liquids which prevents the migration at detectable levels.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Ulla Beckman Sundh, Mona-Lise Binderup, Claudia Bolognesi, Leon Brimer, Laurence Castle, Alessandro Di Domenico, Karl-Heinz Engel, Roland Franz, Nathalie Gontard, Rainer Gürtler, Trine Husøy, Klaus-Dieter Jany, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Catherine Leclercq (until July 2013), Jean-Claude Lhuguenot (until November 2012), Wim Mennes, Maria Rosaria Milana, Maria de Fátima Poças, Iona Pratt, Kettil Svensson, Fidel Toldrá and Detlef Wölfle
Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids
cef [at]
EFSA Journal 2014;12(2):3558
Question Number
On request from
Food Standards Agency, UK