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Guidance on estimation of abundance and density of wild carnivore population:methods, challenges, possibilities

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Disclaimer:The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as authors. This task has been carried out exclusively by the authors in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the authors, awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European Food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.


This guidance reviews the methods for estimating relative abundance and density in nine large European wild carnivore species, somerepresenting relevant health concerns andprovides insights on how to obtain reliable estimations by using those methods. On a local scale, the appropriate method should take into accountthe characteristics of the study area, the estimated survey efforts, the expected results (i.e. a measure of true density or just an index of abundance to monitor the trend in space and time) the level of accuracy and precision, and a proper design so to obtain a correct interpretation of the data. Among all methods, the camera trapping (CT) methods, especially those recently developed, are the most promising for the collection of robust data and can be conducted in a wide range of species, habitats, seasons and densities with minimal adjustments. Some recently developed CT methods do not require individual recognition of the animals and are a good compromise of cost, effort and accuracy. Linear transects,particularly Kilometric Abundance Index (KAI) is applicable for monitoring large regions.A large challenge is compiling and validating abundance data at different spatial scales. Based on ENETWILD initiative, we recommend developing a permanent network and a data platform to collect and share local density estimates, so as abundance in the EU, which would enable to validate predictions for larger areas by modelling. It would allow to identify gaps in the data on wild carnivores (including the species not assessed in the present report) and to focus on these areas for improving predictions. This platform must facilitate the reporting by wildlife policy makers and relevant stakeholders, but also citizen science initiatives.Also, there is need to improve the reliability of local density estimations by developing practical research on methods able to derive densities in untested species and situations, making the application of methods easier for local teams.