Creatine in combination with resistance training and improvement in muscle strength: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

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Article
Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Claims: Jean-Louis Bresson, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marina Heinonen, Ambroise Martin, Harry McArdle, Yolanda Sanz, Alfonso Siani, Anders Sjödin, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Hendrik Van Loveren and Peter Willatts for the preparatory work on this scientific output.

EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2016;14(2):4400 [17 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4400
Panel members at the time of adoption
Jean Louis Bresson, Barbara Burlingame, Tara Dean, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marina Heinonen, Karen Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, Inge Mangelsdorf, Harry McArdle, Androniki Naska, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Grażyna Nowicka, Kristina Pentieva, Yolanda Sanz, Alfonso Siani, Anders Sjödin, Martin Stern, Daniel Tome, Dominique Turck, Hendrik Van Loveren, Marco Vinceti and Peter Willatts
Contact
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
Competent Authority of Austria following an application by AlzChem AG
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2015-00437
Adopted
2 February 2016
Published
23 February 2016
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
Abstract

Following an application from AlzChem AG, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Austria, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to creatine in combination with resistance training and improvement in muscle strength. The Panel considers that the food constituent, creatine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that improvement in muscle strength is a beneficial physiological effect. A total of 21 human intervention studies and two meta-analyses were provided by the applicant as being pertinent to the claim. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from 11 studies and the meta-analyses cannot be used for the scientific substantiation of the claim. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, overall, the human intervention studies submitted provide evidence for an effect of creatine, consumed at doses of at least 3 g/day in combination with regular resistance training (three times per week for several weeks) of moderate intensity, on muscle strength in adults over the age of 55, while no such effect was observed when similar doses of creatine on a weekly basis were given on training days only (three times per week). The Panel also took into account the plausible mechanism by which daily consumption of creatine in combination with resistance training could improve muscle strength. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of creatine in combination with resistance training and improvement in muscle strength in adults over the age of 55.

Keywords
creatine, muscle strength, resistance training, health claims
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Number of Pages
17