Safety and efficacy of vitamin B2 (riboflavin and riboflavin 5’-phosphate ester monosodium salt) produced by Bacillus subtilis for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM

enzyme, vitamin B2, riboflavin, riboflavin 5’-phosphate ester monosodium salt, food safety, Bacillus subtilis, genetically modified micro-organism
First published in the EFSA Journal
15 January 2016
3 December 2015
Last Updated
23 March 2016. This version replaces the previous one/s.
Scientific Opinion


Riboflavin is produced by two genetically modified Bacillus subtilis strains. Neither the production strains nor their recombinant DNA were detected in the final riboflavin products. Riboflavin 5’-phosphate sodium is prepared by phosphorylation of riboflavin. The additives are safe for target animals with a wide margin of safety provided that the current use levels for riboflavin are not exceeded. Toxicological studies with the additive under assessment show that it has a low toxicity and do not indicate a genotoxic potential. The use of the additives in animal nutrition will not significantly alter the riboflavin content of food of animal origin. The EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) considers that the use of the additives in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. The additives containing riboflavin and riboflavin 5’-phosphate sodium are not irritant to skin and eyes. In the absence of data, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on skin sensitisation. Riboflavin is a recognised photosensitiser, which may elicit skin and eye photoallergic reactions. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling riboflavin and riboflavin 5’-phosphate sodium; in the absence of data on inhalation toxicity, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on a possible risk by inhalation. The use of riboflavin and riboflavin 5’-phosphate sodium in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. The additives are regarded as an effective source of riboflavin in covering the animal’s requirement when administered orally.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Gabriele Aquilina, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Secundino López Puente, Marta López-Alonso, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Robert John Wallace and Pieter Wester.
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
EFSA Journal 2016;14(1):4349
Question Number
On request from
European Commission