Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (chemical group 31) when used as flavourings for all animal species

sensory additives, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chemical group 31
First published in the EFSA Journal
31 March 2015
10 March 2015
Last Updated
20 July 2015. This version replaces the previous one/s.
Scientific Opinion


Chemical group 31 consists of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, of which 17 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. This opinion concerns nine compounds from this group. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) is unable to perform an assessment of 1,4(8),12-bisabolatriene [01.016] due to the lack of data on its purity. The Panel concludes that d-limonene [01.045] is safe for all animal species, except for male rats, at the proposed maximum dose level (25 mg/kg feed). 1-Isopropyl-4-methylbenzene [01.002] is safe for all target species, except cats, at the proposed maximum dose level (25 mg/kg feed), with a margin of safety ranging from 1-fold (no margin of safety) to 3.2-fold. For cats the calculated maximum safe concentration is 14 mg/kg complete feed. For the compounds belonging to Cramer Class I, terpinolene [01.005], alpha-phellandrene [01.006], 1-isopropenyl-4-methylbenzene [01.010], alpha-terpinene [01.019], gamma-terpinene [01.020] and l-limonene [01.046], the calculated safe use level is 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non-food-producing animals and 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. The absence of a margin of safety would not allow the simultaneous administration in feed and water for drinking of these substances. Overall, the FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to conclude on the use of these additives in water for drinking. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of these compounds up to the highest safe levels in feeds. All compounds should be considered irritant to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as skin sensitisers. No risk for the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since all of the compounds under assessment are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Gabriele Aquilina, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria De Lourdes Bastos, Lucio Guido Costa, Gerhard Flachowsky, Mikolaj Antoni Gralak, Christer Hogstrand, Lubomir Leng, Secundino López-Puente, Giovanna Martelli, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Derek Renshaw, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Kristen Sejrsen, Patrick Van Beelen, Robert John Wallace and Johannes Westendorf.
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
EFSA Journal 2015;13(3):4053
Question Number
On request from
European Commission