Scientific Opinion on the Pest Risk Analysis on Phytophthora ramorum prepared by the FP6 project RAPRA

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Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Phytophthora ramorum for the preparation of this opinion: Matteo Garbelotto, Michael John Jeger, Charles Manceau, Marco Pautasso, Trond Rafoss, Jan Schans and the hearing expert: Clive Brasier and EFSA staff: Virág Kertész and Sybren Vos for the support provided to this scientific opinion.

Panel on Plant Health
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2011;9(6):2186 [108 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2186
Possible conflict of interest
One member of the Panel did not participate in the discussion on the subject referred to above because of potential conflicts of interest identified in accordance with the EFSA policy on declarations of interests.
Panel members at the time of adoption
Richard Baker, Thierry Candresse, Erzsébet Dormannsné Simon, Gianni Gilioli, Jean-Claude Grégoire, Michael John Jeger, Olia Evtimova Karadjova, Gábor Lövei, David Makowski, Charles Manceau, Maria Navajas, Angelo Porta Puglia, Trond Rafoss, Vittorio Rossi, Jan Schans, Gritta Schrader, Gregor Urek, Johan Coert van Lenteren, Irene Vloutoglou, Stephan Winter and Marina Zlotina.
Contact
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2010-00841
Adopted
18 May 2011
Published
28 June 2011
Last Updated
19 October 2011. This version replaces the previous one/s.
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Pest Risk Analysis on Phytophthora ramorum prepared by the FP6 project RAPRA, taking into account comments by Member States and additional information since RAPRA. P. ramorum is the oomycete causing sudden oak death in the USA and leaf and twig blight/dieback on a range of ornamental species in North America and Europe. Currently P. ramorum is not listed as a harmful organism in Council Directive 2000/29/EC, but the Commission adopted in 2002 provisional emergency measures to prevent introduction into and spread within the EU. Recent large-scale outbreaks in Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) plantations in the UK and Ireland have worsened the potential consequences in the risk assessment area. However, the Panel concludes that the broad narrative in the RAPRA report stands and supports its conclusion that “There is a risk of further entry (of known or new lineages and/or mating types), establishment and […] impact”. It is advisable to avoid introductions of different lineages because of inherent phenotypic differences and the potential for sexual recombination. The Panel supports the management options proposed in the RAPRA report and adds further measures for consideration. Uncertainty remains over the extent to which the association between control measures and gradual reduction in the number of cases in nurseries is causal. The emergency measures have not prevented outbreaks occurring in the natural environment. The many other remaining uncertainties (fitness of progeny, hybridisation with other Phytophthora species, host range and epidemiological role of new hosts, early detection of new outbreaks, understanding of long-range dispersal, structure of plant trade networks, origin of the pathogen) call for further research on P. ramorum across Europe. Regulatory work should keep updated with research results on P. ramorum and further development of the Japanese larch outbreaks.

Keywords
Larix kaempferi, management options, Phytophthora ramorum, ramorum blight, RAPRA, risk assessment, sudden oak death
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Number of Pages
108