Panel members at the time of adoption
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of feed additives prepared from Piper nigrum L.: black pepper oil and black pepper oleoresin for all animal species and a supercritical extract of black pepper for use in dogs and cats. The Panel concludes that black pepper oil is safe in complete feed up to 5 mg/kg for chickens for fattening and other growing poultry, 8 mg/kg for laying hens and other laying/breeding birds kept for egg production/reproduction, 7 mg/kg for turkeys for fattening, 9.5 mg/kg for piglets and other growing Suidae, 11.5 mg/kg for pigs for fattening, 14 mg/kg for sows and dairy cows (and other dairy ruminants), 8.5 mg/kg in rabbits and 20 mg/kg in veal calves, cattle for fattening (and other growing ruminants), sheep, goats, horses, salmonids (and other fin fish), dogs, cats and ornamental fish. For all the other species, the additive is considered safe at 5 mg/kg complete feed. The supercritical extract of black pepper is safe up to the maximum proposed use levels in complete feed of 1.5 mg/kg for cats and dogs. The black pepper oleoresin is safe in complete feed up to 12.5 mg/kg for veal calves, 11.5 for cattle for fattening and other growing ruminants, sheep/goats and horses, 14 mg/kg for dogs 13.5 for mg/kg for salmonids and other fin fish and 51.5 for ornamental fish. For the other species, the calculated safe concentrations in complete feed are 1 mg/kg for chickens for fattening and other growing poultry, 1.4 mg/kg for laying hens and other laying/breeding birds kept for egg production/reproduction, 1.3 for turkeys for fattening, 1.7 mg/kg for piglets and other growing Suidae, 2 mg/kg for pigs for fattening, 2.5 mg/kg for sows, 2.4 mg/kg for dairy cows and other dairy ruminants, 1.5 mg/kg for rabbits, 3.8 mg/kg for cats. For all the other species, the additive is considered safe at 1 mg/kg complete feed. No concerns for consumers and environment were identified following the use of the additives at the use levels considered safe for the target animals. The additives are irritant to skin and eyes, and act as dermal and respiratory sensitisers. The additives are recognised to flavour food and since their function in feed would be essentially the same, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.