Final evidence report as part of preparatory work for the setting of Dietary Reference Values for sodium and chloride

sodium, chloride, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, literature review
First published in EFSA Supporting Publications
3 avril 2019
7 novembre 2014
External Scientific Report

†This final deliverable of EFSA's Negotiated Procedure NP/EFSA/NUTRI/2014/01‐Lot 3 was approved on 07 November 2014. The report was published on 03 April 2019 together with the launching of the EFSA public consultations on the draft opinions on Dietary Reference Values for chloride and sodium
‡Question No EFSA‐Q‐2014‐00101.

The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European Food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.


As part of its mandate from the European Commission, EFSA must review existing advice from the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) on Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for energy, macro‐ and micronutrients and other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect, including sodium and chloride. As part of preparatory work for this task, this part of the report summaries current general scientific information for the micronutrients sodium and chloride. Data has been collated via a literature review of published, peer reviewed scientific literature from two online databases: Google Scholar and PubMed. Information contained within a total of 146 documents for sodium and 85 documents for chloride has been evaluated and included. As well as describing the methodological approach, this report covers the occurrence, geology and chemistry of sodium and chloride; approaches to and limitations of the chemical analysis of clinical samples; the biological functions of sodium and chloride and an overview of the health consequences of sodium and chloride deficiency. In addition, sodium and chloride physiology and metabolism in healthy adults, biomarkers of intake, status and function and genotypes affecting metabolism are covered.

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