The report summarises the monitoring data generated in 2020 in the frame of official control activities on the presence of residues of veterinary medicinal products and certain substances in live animals and animal products in the European Union, Iceland and Norway. A total of 620,758 samples for nearly 13 million single analytical results were reported to the European Commission by the 27 EU Member States, Iceland and Norway; of those samples, 331,789 were targeted samples and 4,259 suspect samples reported under Council Directive 96/23/EC, while 2,551 samples were collected at import and 282,159 samples tested in the framework of programmes developed under the national legislation. The majority of countries fulfilled the minimum requirements for sampling frequency laid down in Council Directive 96/23/EC and in Commission Decision 97/747/EC. Overall, the percentage of non‐compliant samples in 2020 (0.19%) was lower compared to 2019 (0.30%), but also compared to the previous 11 years (0.25%‐0.37%). The same overall pattern was observed for targeted samples in 2020 (0.27%) compared to the previous 3 years (0.30%‐0.35%). Compared to the results from 2017, 2018 and 2019, in 2020 the frequency of non‐compliant results was decreased for antithyroid agents, steroids and resorcylic acid lactones. For prohibited substances, compared to 2019 the frequency on non‐compliance in 2020 was higher, although lower compared to 2017 and 2018. For chemical elements (including metals), compared to 2017 and 2019, the frequency on non‐compliance in 2020 was lower, although higher compared to 2018. Decreases were noted for anthelmintics, organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus compounds, dyes and ‘other substances’, compared to 2017, 2018 and 2019 results. For anticoccidials, non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ‘other pharmacologically active substances’ and mycotoxins, compared to 2019 the frequency on non‐compliance was higher while lower for other substances and environmental contaminants. For the other substance groups, there were no notable variations.