Pest categorisation of High Plains wheat mosaic virus
The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest categorisation of High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV) for the EU territory. The identity of HPWMoV, a member of the genus Emaravirus (family Fimoviridae), is well established and reliable identification methods are available. The pathogen is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. HPWMoV has been reported from Argentina, Australia, Canada, Ukraine and USA, and it is not known to be present in the EU. HPWMoV infects plant species of the family Poaceae (i.e. wheat, maize and several other cultivated or wild Poaceae species). It is the causal agent of High Plains disease of wheat and maize, inducing symptoms ranging from mild to severe mosaic, chlorosis and necrosis in wheat, and chlorotic streaks in maize plants. The virus is transmitted by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella, which is present in the EU. HPWMoV transmission via seeds was reported to occur in sweet corn. Sweet corn seeds for sowing were identified as the most relevant pathway for entry of HPWMoV into the EU. Seeds from other hosts and viruliferous wheat curl mites were identified as entry pathways associated with uncertainties. Machinery not appropriately cleaned may move infected seeds and/or parts of cereals infested by viruliferous mites. Cultivated and wild hosts of HPWMoV are distributed across the EU. Would the pest enter and establish in the EU territory, economic impact on the production of cultivated hosts is expected. Phytosanitary measures are available to prevent entry and spread of the virus in the EU. HPWMoV fulfils the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a potential Union quarantine pest.