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Extensive literature search on N‐nitroso compounds in food

on the Wiley Online Library


Disclaimer: The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). This task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s), awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European Food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.


An Extensive Literature Search (ELS) by using PubMed, Web of Science and SciFinder for relevant studies on N‐nitroso compounds (NOCs) analysed in food was performed. Search queries allowed to obtain a total number of 18592 non‐redundant references. The relevance analysis of these references was performed by screening of title and abstract related to the chemical identity and characterisation, sources and occurrence in food, toxicokinetics and toxicity of NOCs applying eligibility criteria. Relevant references accounted for: i) Area 1 (Data on chemical identification and characterisation of NOCs found in food products) 176 documents; ii) Area 2 (Data on sources and occurrence in food, including human milk) 234 documents; Area 3 (Data on toxicokinetics, i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, in experimental animals and humans and from in vitro studies) 148 documents; Area 4 (Data on toxicity in experimental animals) 143 documents; Area 5 (Data on in silico, in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and mode of action) 726 documents; Area 6 (Data on observations in humans including epidemiological studies, case reports, biomarkers of exposure) 333 documents. A total number of 1494 non‐redundant relevant documents was found.