The report summarises the data collected from the monitoring on the presence of residues of veterinary medicinal products and certain substances in live animals and animal products in the European Union, in 2011. Altogether, 742,902 samples were reported to the European Commission. They included 415,909 targeted samples and 23,236 suspect samples reported under Council Directive 96/23/EC, 4,329 samples checked at import and 299,428 samples collected in the framework of programmes developed under the national legislation. The minimum requirements for sampling frequency laid down in Council Directive 96/23/EC and in Commission Decision 97/747/EC were fulfilled by the vast majority of Member States. The percentage of non-compliant targeted samples (0.28 %) was slightly lower compared to the previous four years (0.32 % – 0.34 %). The difference was triggered by the lower frequency of non-compliant samples for steroids, resorcyclic acid lactones, prohibited substances, antimicrobials, anthelmintics and anticoccidials. Conversely, the proportion of non-compliant samples for chemical elements (mainly metals) was similar to 2010 and higher compared to the period 2007 - 2009. This development is explained by the application since 2010 of a stricter legal basis in the evaluation of compliance for mercury and copper thus resulting in more non-compliant samples. For other substance groups, there were no notable variations in the overall frequency of non-compliant samples over the past five years.