This pest survey card was prepared in the context of the EFSA mandate on plant pest surveillance (M‐2020‐0114), at the request of the European Commission. Its purpose is to guide the Member States in preparing data and information for surveys of the Mexican fruit flyAnastrepha ludens.These are required to design statistically sound and risk‐based pest surveys, in line with current international standards.Anastrephaludensis a clearly defined taxonomic entity, but identification of this fruit fly is challenging as several species within the genus are morphologically similar to and may co‐exist with A. ludens. Imports of citrus fruits and fruits of several tropical hosts are subject to specific measures in EU aiming to prevent entry ofnon‐European Tephritidae.Nevertheless,the most likely introduction of A. ludenswould be via the transport of infested fruit followed by natural spread, whichmight be facilitated by the fact that the species is considered a strong flier. The insect is currently absent from the EU and surveys should aim at substantiating pest freedom. Adult trapping using food‐based attractants is the preferred survey method for the detection of the fly.Surveillance should preferably be executed during the time of the season in whichfruits from the main host plants are available and abundant and the climate conditions are favourable. Anastrephaludensis a polyphagous species. The primary host for detection surveys in the EU would be cultivated Citrus spp., whereas other host species should be includedfor delimiting surveys. The pestis expected to be able to establish in the most southern part of the EU.Species‐levelidentification of A.ludensrequires morphological examination of the ovipositor and especially the aculeustip of females.