Commodity risk assessment of Malus domestica plants from Serbia

Malus domestica, apple trees, Serbia, European Union, commodity risk assessment, plant health, phytosanitary import requirements, bacteria, Erwinia amylovora, fireblight
First published in the EFSA Journal
13 May 2020
13 March 2020
Scientific Opinion


The EFSA Panel on Plant health was requested to prepare and deliver risk assessments for commodities listed in the relevant Implementing Acts as ‘High risk plants, plant products and other objects’ (Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/2019 establishing a provisional list of high‐risk plants, plant products or other objects, within the meaning of Article 42 of Regulation (EU) 2016/2031). The current scientific opinion covers all plant health risks posed by dormant bare rooted plants for planting of Malus domestica (1–2 years old) imported from Serbia, considering the available scientific information, including the technical information provided by the Plant Protection Directorate from Serbia on 27 December 2019. The relevance of an EU‐quarantine pest for this opinion was based on evidence that: (a) the pest is present in Serbia; (b) the pest uses M. domestica as a host; (c) one or more life stages of the pest can be associated with the specified commodity. The relevance for this opinion of pests not regulated in the EU was based on the following criteria: (i) the pest is present in Serbia; (ii) the pest is not present in the EU; (iii) M. domestica is a host of the pest; (iv) the pest can be associated with the commodity and (v) the pest may have an impact and can pose potential risk for the EU territory. After the assessment of 1191 potential pests, one bacterium, Erwinia amylovora, fulfilled all criteria and accordingly, was selected for further evaluation. For this bacterium, the risk mitigation measures proposed in the technical dossier were evaluated. Limiting factors on the effectiveness of the measures were also considered. For the selected species, an expert judgement is given on the likelihood of pest freedom taking into consideration the risk mitigation measures acting on E. amylovora, including any uncertainties. Based on the outcomes of an Expert Knowledge Elicitation, the Panel is considering a pallet as a unit; and taking into account the uncertainties associated with the assessment, the panel is 95% sure that 9,934 or more pallets out of 10,000 will be pest free.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Claude Bragard, Katharina Dehnen‐Schmutz, Francesco Di Serio, Paolo Gonthier, Marie‐Agnès Jacques, Josep Anton Jaques Miret, Annemarie Fejer Justesen, Alan MacLeod, Christer Sven Magnusson, Panagiotis Milonas, Juan A Navas‐Cortes, Stephen Parnell, Roel Potting, Philippe L Reignault, Hans‐Hermann Thulke, Wopke Van der Werf, Antonio Vicent, Jonathan Yuen and Lucia Zappalà.
Panel on Plant Health
alpha [at]
highriskplants [at]
EFSA Journal 2020;18(5):6109
Question Number
On request from
European Commission