Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for folate
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for folate. The Panel concludes that an Average Requirement (AR), as well as a Population Reference Intake (PRI) assuming a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15 % to account for the additional variability associated with the higher requirement for folate in individuals with the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT genotype, can be derived from biomarkers of folate status. Several health outcomes possibly associated with folate intake/status were also considered, but data were found to be insufficient to establish DRVs. For adults, the AR is determined from the folate intake required to maintain folate adequacy characterised by serum and red blood cell folate concentrations of ≥ 10 and 340 nmol/L, respectively. An AR of 250 µg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day and a PRI of 330 µg DFE/day are derived. For infants aged 7–11 months, an Adequate Intake (AI) of 80 µg DFE/day is derived by extrapolating upwards from the estimated folate intake in exclusively breast-fed infants. For children, ARs are extrapolated from the AR for adults using allometric scaling and growth factors and considering differences in reference weights. PRIs ranging from 120 µg DFE/day for 1–3 year-old children to 330 µg DFE/day for boys and girls aged 15–17 years are derived. For pregnant women, an AI of 600 µg DFE/day is derived based on a study on maintenance of serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in pregnancy. For lactating women, an additional intake of 130 µg DFE/day is considered to cover folate losses via breast milk; this figure is added to the AR for non-lactating women and a PRI of 500 µg DFE/day is derived.