Scientific Opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of Plant Protection Products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)

Guidance Document, PPR opinion, honey bees, bumble bees, solitary bees, pesticide, risk assessment
First published in the EFSA Journal
23 May 2012
18 April 2012
Scientific Opinion


The PPR Panel was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees). Specific protection goals options were suggested based on the ecosystem services approach. The different routes of exposure were analysed in detail for different categories of bees. The existing test guidelines were evaluated and suggestions for improvement and further research needs were listed. A simple prioritisation tool to assess cumulative effects of single pesticides using mortality data is suggested. Effects from repeated and simultanous exposure and synergism are discussed. Proposals for separate risk assessment schemes, one for honey bees and one for bumble bees and solitary bees, were developed.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Jos Boesten, Claudia Bolognesi, Theo Brock, Ettore Capri, Anthony Hardy, Andrew Hart, Karen Hirsch-Ernst, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou, Robert Luttik, Michael Klein, Kyriaki Machera, Bernadette Ossendorp, Annette Petersen, Yolanda Pico, Andreas Schäffer, Paulo Sousa, Walter Steurbaut, Anita Stromberg, Maria Tasheva, Ton van der Linden, Christiane Vleminckx
Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues
pesticides.ppr [at]
EFSA Journal 2012;10(5):2668
Question Number
On request from
European Commission