Pest survey card on flavescence dorée phytoplasma and its vector Scaphoideus titanus
This pest survey card was prepared in the context of the EFSA mandate on plant pest surveillance (M‐2017‐0137) at the request of the European Commission. Its purpose is to guide the Member States in preparing data and information for Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp) and its vector Scaphoideus titanus that are required to design statistically sound and risk‐based surveys, in line with current international standards. Flavescence dorée phytoplasmais a Union quarantine pest known to occur only in Europe, whereas its main vector S. titanus is a monophagous leaf hopper that has been introduced into the EU and is not regulatedin the EU. Both FDp and S. titanus are currently present in most of the main grape‐growing EU Member States. The alternative hosts and other putative vectors of FDp play a secondary role in the epidemics. Spread of FDp in the EU can occur mainly through the internal movement of plants for planting of grapevine and the spread of infected vectors. Detection surveys for both FDp and S. titanusshould focus on commercial and productive vineyards and nurseries, wherever present in the EU, while in the event of an outbreak, delimiting surveys should extend to the wild and American Vitis spp. plants that can be found in abandoned vineyards, in the wild or grown in backyards and gardens, and that can have a crucial role in primary infections. IfS. titanus is present in an FDp outbreak area, the delimiting survey could be extended to occasional vectors of FDp and alternative hosts in order to also consider the spread of FDp from those reservoirs. Visual inspections are effective for identifying the vector but not for FDp, which requires confirmation by molecular methods.