Advancing biological hazards risk assessment

globalisation, biological hazards, antimicrobial resistance, vector-borne diseases, wholegenome sequencing
First published in the EFSA Journal
8. Juli 2019
Approved
12. März 2019
Type
Special Issue

The views or positions expressed in this article do not necessarily represent in legal terms the official position of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear. This article does not disclose any confidential information or data. Mention of proprietary products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by EFSA for their use.

Abstract

This paper focusses on biological hazards at the global level and considers the challenges to risk assessment (RA) from a One Health perspective. Two topics – vector‐borne diseases (VBD) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – are used to illustrate the challenges ahead and to explore the opportunities that new methodologies such as next‐generation sequencing can offer. Globalisation brings complexity and introduces drivers for infectious diseases. Cooperation and the application of an integrated RA approach – one that takes into consideration food farming and production systems including social and environmental factors – are recommended. Also needed are methodologies to identify emerging risks at a global level and propose prevention strategies. AMR is one of the biggest threats to human health in the infectious disease environment. Whereas new genomic typing techniques such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) provide further insights into the mechanisms of spread of resistance, the role of the environment is not fully elucidated, nor is the role of plants as potential vehicles for spread of resistance. Historical trends and recent experience indicate that (re)‐emergence and/or further spread of VBD within the EU is a matter of when rather than if. Standardised and validated vector monitoring programs are required to be implemented at an international level for continuous surveillance and assessment of potential threats. There are benefits to using WGS – such as a quicker and better response to outbreaks and additional evidence for source attribution. However, significant challenges need to be addressed, including method standardisation and validation to fully realise these benefits; barriers to data sharing; and establishing epidemiological capacity for cluster triage and response.

Contact
Winy.Messens [at] efsa.europa.eu
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2019.e170714
EFSA Journal 2019;17(S1):e170714