Pest categorisation of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation on tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). ToLCNDV is a well‐defined bipartite Begomovirus species, sometimes associated with satellite molecules. It is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci to a wide range of hosts. ToLCNDV is reported from Estonia, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, with limited distribution. The prevalent strain (ToLCNDV‐ES) in these countries is particularly adapted to cucurbits and is different from isolates reported outside the EU, which are better adapted to solanaceous crops and could therefore pose additional risk for EU agriculture. The virus is regulated under Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. The main pathway of entry identified is plants for planting of susceptible hosts, even if entry could also occur via commodities carrying viruliferous B. tabaci and possibly by seeds. While establishment and local spread rely on B. tabaci, the virus can also be dispersed over long distances by movement of infected plants for planting. Establishment and spread are limited to regions with ecoclimatic conditions suitable for the establishment of vector populations (southern regions of Europe) or can occur as outbreaks wherever crops are grown under protected cultivation. The main uncertainties associated with this pest categorisation are the distribution and prevalence of ToLCNDV in the EU, the magnitude of the virus impact particularly on hosts different from Cucurbitaceae, and seed transmission. ToLCNDV meets all the criteria evaluated by EFSA to qualify as potential Union Quarantine Pest (QP); conversely, ToLCNDV does not meet the criterion of being widespread in the EU to qualify as a Regulated Non‐Quarantine Pest (RNQP). Should new data show that ToLCNDV is widespread in the EU, the possibility would exist for non‐EU isolates to qualify as QP, while ToLCNDV EU isolates (ToLCNDV‐ES) could qualify as RNQP.