Safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous for food‐producing animal species based on a dossier submitted by AB Vista

nutritional additive, vitamins and provitamins, betaine anhydrous, safety
First published in the EFSA Journal
12 luglio 2018
12 giugno 2018
Scientific Opinion


Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous produced ■■■■■ as a nutritional additive to be used in feed for all food‐producing animal species except rabbits. Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous tissues of vertebrates as an osmolyte ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine anhydrous (97%, 96% or 91%) is considered safe for the target species at a maximum supplementation rate of 2,000 mg betaine/kg complete feed. The use of betaine anhydrous (97%, 96% and 91%) as a feed additive up to a supplementation of 2,000 mg/kg complete feed does not pose concerns to consumer safety. The betaine liquid product contains a high proportion of unknown material (about 30% on dry matter basis). The FEEDAP Panel therefore cannot conclude on the safety of the liquid form of the additive for the target species and the consumer. In the absence of data, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the safety for the user. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has a potential to become efficacious in food‐producing animal species and categories when administered via feed, especially when methyl groups from methionine or choline are limiting. The FEEDAP Panel made a recommendation on the use of the additive in premixtures without choline chloride.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Gabriele Aquilina, Giovanna Azimonti, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Marta López‐Alonso, Secundino López Puente, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Robert John Wallace and Pieter Wester.
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
feedap [at]
EFSA Journal 2018;16(7):5335
Question Number
On request from
European Commission
Relevant information or parts of this scientific output have been blackened in accordance with the confidentiality requests formulated by the applicant pending a decision thereon by the European Commission. The full output has been shared with the European Commission, EU Member States and the applicant. The blackening will be subject to review once the decision on the confidentiality requests is adopted by the European Commission.