Collection and review of updated scientific epidemiological data on porcine epidemic diarrhoea
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) is a non-zoonotic viral disease of pigs caused by a coronavirus and characterised by watery diarrhoea and weight loss. PED is not notifiable to the EU or World Organisation for Animal Health listed but it is notifiable at the national level in Finland, France, Ireland and Sweden. PED case reports from seven countries and PED surveillance and monitoring activities in thirteen countries were reported. This information was combined with an extensive literature review to provide an update on global PED occurrence, circulating strains and impact in 2014–2015. PED confirmed cases have been reported in North America, South America, Asia and Europe. PED virus (PEDV) sequences originating from EU pig herds indicate that the strains currently in circulation share nearly 100% sequence identity and have greater than 99% sequence identity with the reference INDEL (insertion/deletion) strain USA/OH851/2014. In 2014–2015, greater genetic variability has been reported in strains circulating in Asia compared with EU Member States and a non-INDEL strain has been detected in the Ukraine in 2014. Data on impact confirms that mortality is higher in suckling piglets and diarrhoea is observed in all age groups. The reported impact is in agreement with that reported in EFSA AHAW Panel (2014) indicating that the impact of recently reported PED outbreaks in Asia and the USA seems to be more severe than that described in EU countries, although the impact of different PEDV strains is difficult to compare between one country and another, as impact is dependent not only on pathogenicity but also on factors such as biosecurity, herd size, farm management, sanitary status or herd immune status.