Scientific Opinion on the potential reduction of the currently authorised maximum zinc content in complete feed

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Article
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2014;12(5):3668 [77 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3668
Panel members at the time of adoption
Gabriele Aquilina, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria De Lourdes Bastos, Lucio Guido Costa, Gerhard Flachowsky, Mikolaj Antoni Gralak, Christer Hogstrand, Lubomir Leng, Secundino López-Puente, Giovanna Martelli, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Derek Renshaw, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Kristen Sejrsen, Patrick Van Beelen, Robert John Wallace and Johannes Westendorf.
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Revision of Maximum Content of Zinc in Feed, including Noël A. Dierick, Jürgen Gropp, Catherine Jondreville, Marta Lopez Alonso, Anne Katrine Lundebye, Wolfgang Maret and Patrick Schlegel for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion. The Panel also wishes to thank the Authorities of EU Member States and EEA/EFTA countries, and stakeholders who provided information following a call for data on zinc in animal nutrition launched by EFSA.

Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2012-00966
Adopted
8 aprile 2014
Published
5 maggio 2014
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
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Abstract

A critical review of (i) the zinc requirements of food-producing and pet animals, (ii) the zinc concentration of feed materials and (iii) the calculated background zinc concentration of complete feed supports the possibility of a considerable reduction of the currently authorised maximum concentration for total zinc in feed. The FEEDAP Panel developed, based on an approximation using zinc requirements and background data, potential new maximum contents, which could replace the current ones. The newly proposed total maximum contents are: 150 mg Zn/kg complete feed for piglets, sows, rabbits, salmonids, cats and dogs; 120 mg Zn/kg complete feed for turkeys for fattening; 100 mg Zn/kg complete feed for all other species and categories. The use of phytase in feeding piglets, pigs for fattening and sows would allow a further reduction of the newly proposed total maximum contents by 30 % (from 150 to 110 mg Zn/kg feed for piglets and sows and from 100 to 70 mg Zn/kg feed for pigs for fattening). The newly proposed total maximum contents ensure health, welfare and productivity of the target species and do not affect consumer safety. The FEEDAP Panel expects that the introduction of the newly proposed total maximum contents, provided they are applied in feeding practices, would result in an overall reduction of zinc emissions from animal production of about 20 %.

Summary

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the potential reduction of the currently authorised maximum zinc content in complete feed (250 mg Zn/kg for pet animals, 200 mg Zn/kg for fish and milk replacer and 150 mg Zn/kg for other animal species).

To improve the available information on the use of zinc in animal nutrition, EFSA launched a call for data to EU Member States and EEA/EFTA countries and to stakeholders. The data submitted were used in the current Scientific Opinion.

Zinc in the form of its divalent metal ion, Zn2+, is nutritionally essential for all living organisms. The total amount of zinc in the human body is 2-3 g and its concentrations in tissues are about the same in all mammals. Virtually all its functions are in proteins, in which it is a catalytic, structural, or regulatory cofactor.

A critical review of (i) the zinc requirements of food-producing and pet animals, (ii) the zinc concentration of feed materials and (iii) the calculated background zinc concentration of complete feed supports the possibility of a considerable reduction of the currently authorised maximum concentration for total zinc in feed. The FEEDAP Panel developed, based on an approximation using zinc requirements and background data, potential new maximum contents, which could replace the current ones. The newly proposed total maximum contents are: 150 mg Zn/kg complete feed for piglets, sows, rabbits, salmonids, cats and dogs; 120 mg Zn/kg complete feed for turkeys for fattening; 100 mg Zn/kg complete feed for all other species and categories. The use of phytase, either from endogenous source or from a feed additive, in feeding piglets, pigs for fattening and sows would allow a further reduction of the newly proposed total maximum contents by 30 % (from 150 to 110 mg Zn/kg feed for piglets and sows and from 100 to 70 mg Zn/kg feed for pigs for fattening).

The newly proposed total maximum contents ensure health, welfare and productivity of the target species. The newly proposed total maximum contents do not affect consumer safety. The FEEDAP Panel expects that the introduction of the newly proposed total maximum contents, provided they are applied in feeding practices, would result in an overall reduction of zinc emissions from animal production of about 20 %.

Keywords
zinc, zinc requirements, zinc in feed, interactions, maximum content of zinc in feed, safety, environment
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Number of Pages
77