CHIP: Commodity based Hazard Identification Protocol for emerging diseases in plants and animals
The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as authors. In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the authors in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority and the authors. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the European Food Safety Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by EFSA. EFSA reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.
This project comprised the development of a commodity-based hazard identification protocol for biological hazards in plants and animals as a decision support tree programmed in Excel. The content of the decision tree is based on the results of a systematic review of pest and pathogen characteristics, a review of risk assessment schemes and on expert judgement. Application of the protocol results in an indication of the level of likelihood of entry of animal and plant pathogens/pests in the area of destination associated with the commodity/pathway, and it guides the decision regarding potential actions to be undertaken in the search for existing and emerging pathogens/pests. The decision tree consists of three levels. Level 0 concerns whether the commodity itself can turn into a pest, whether it can contain pests and pathogens, and whether it contains additional material that can be contaminated. The likelihood that a commodity contains pests and pathogens depends on the likelihood of pest association and survival before the commodity is transported to the country of destination, and the likelihood that the pest/pathogen will come into contact with local hosts in that country. In level 1, the likelihood of pest association and survival is elaborated and assessed for each pest/pathogen category, whereas in level 2 the likelihood that a biological hazard comes into contact with local host is assessed in greater detail. The decision tree is extended with a [commodity list derived from Combined Nomenclature (CN) classification with relevant characteristics, and a pathway model which enables the risk assessor to provide and structure the relevant information. The decision tree was tested and demonstrated by six commodities: three of plant origin and three of animal origin.