The European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2016
The data on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2016, submitted by 28 EU Member States (MSs), were jointly analysed by the EFSA and ECDC. Resistance in bacterial isolates of zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter from humans, animals and food, and resistance in indicator Escherichia coli as well as in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from animals and food were addressed. ‘Microbiological’ resistance was assessed using epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values; for some countries, qualitative data on isolates from humans were interpreted in a way that corresponds closely to ECOFF-defined ‘microbiological’ resistance. In Salmonella from humans, the occurrence of resistance to ampicillin, sulfonamides and tetracyclines was high, whereas resistance to thirdgeneration cephalosporins was low. In Salmonella and E. coli isolates from broilers, fattening turkeys and their meat, resistance to ampicillin, (fluoro)quinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides was frequently high, whereas resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was rare. The occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC producers was low in Salmonella and E. coli from poultry and in Salmonella from humans. The prevalence of ESBL-/AmpC-producing E. coli, assessed in poultry and its meat for the first time, showed marked variations among MSs. Fourteen presumptive carbapenemase-producing E. coli were detected from broilers and its meat in two MSs. Resistance to colistin was observed at low levels in Salmonella and E. coli from poultry and meat thereof and in Salmonella from humans. In Campylobacter from humans, broilers and broiler meat, resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracyclines was high to extremely high, whereas resistance to erythromycin was low to moderate. Combined resistance to critically important antimicrobials in isolates from both humans and animals was generally uncommon, but very high to extremely high multidrug resistance levels were observed in certain Salmonella serovars. Specific serovars of Salmonella (notably Kentucky) from both humans and animals exhibited high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin, in addition to findings of ESBL.