Overview of existing methodologies for the estimation of non-dietary exposure to chemicals from the use of consumer products and via the environment
The current scientific report aims at providing a document that compiles and summarise relevant information on non-dietary exposure derived from the use of consumer products and via the environment (dust, air, etc.). Leading institutions and organisations on non-dietary exposure are presented, in particular, the European Chemical Agency (ECHA). This scientific report also provides an overview of the registration process of chemical substances that should be followed under Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), including the use descriptor system. This system provides an appropriate level of information to allow understanding what is done with the substance and to ensure a meaningful and complete exposure assessment of the uses. Special attention is given to algorithms and toolboxes described by ECHA guidance that are used to estimate the external dose of one particular chemical through different routes and sources of exposure. These algorithms allow the estimation of non-dietary exposure following a stepwise or tiered approach, from deriving a reasonable ‘worst-case’ scenario to more refined exposure estimations when needed. Sources of information are also provided on default values (exposure factors) to be used when not measured values are available, such as body weight, dermal factors (e.g. skin area), consumer products use, activity factors, inhalation rates, incidental soil ingestion rates, etc. Finally, few examples are given on how to use some of the mentioned toolboxes and algorithms to estimate non-dietary exposure to different chemical compounds (carvone and bisphenol A) from consumer products and environment (indoor air). This scientific report was endorsed by the EFSA Scientific Committee on its 78th Plenary Meeting.