The European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2014


European Food Safety Authority
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2016;14(2):4380 [207 pp.].
EFSA and ECDC wish to thank the members of the Scientific Network for Zoonoses Monitoring Data (EFSA) and the Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses Network (ECDC) who provided the data and reviewed the report and the members of the Scientific Network for Zoonoses Monitoring Data, for their endorsement of this scientific output. Also, the contribution of EFSA staff members: Pierre-Alexandre Belœil, Beatriz Guerra, Anca-Violeta Stoicescu, Kenneth Mulligan, Krisztina Nagy and Mirena Ivanova, the contributions of ECDC staff member: Therese Westrell, and the contributions of EFSA’s contractor: Christopher Teale (Animal and Plant Health Laboratories Agency – United Kingdom), for the support provided to this scientific output.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Scientific Report of EFSA
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
9 février 2016
Published in the EFSA Journal
11 février 2016
Last Updated
11 mars 2016. This version replaces the previous one/s.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
The data on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2014, submitted by 28 EU Member States (MSs), were jointly analysed by EFSA and ECDC. Resistance in zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter species from humans, animals and food, and resistance in indicator Escherichia coli as well as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and food was assessed. ‘Microbiological’ resistance was assessed using epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values; for some countries, quantitative data on human isolates were interpreted in a way which corresponds closely to the ECOFF-defined ‘microbiological’ resistance. In Salmonella from humans, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, sulfonamides and tetracyclines, whereas resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and to fluoroquinolones remained generally low, although it was markedly higher in some serovars commonly associated with broilers and turkeys. In Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from broilers, fattening turkeys and meat thereof, resistance to ampicillin, (fluoro)quinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides was frequently detected, whereas resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was uncommon. For the first time, presumptive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-/AmpC-/carbapenemase production in Salmonella and Escherichia coli was monitored in poultry. The occurrence of ESBL-/AmpC-producers was low, and carbapenemase-producers were not detected. Resistance to colistin was observed at low levels in Salmonella and Escherichia coli from poultry and meat thereof. In Campylobacter from humans, a high to very high proportion of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracyclines, whereas resistance to erythromycin was low to moderate. Resistance to fluoroquinolones in some MSs was extremely high; in such settings, the effective treatment options for human enteric Campylobacter infection may be significantly reduced. High resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracyclines was observed in Campylobacter isolates from broilers and broiler meat, whereas much lower levels were recorded for erythromycin. Co-resistance to critically important antimicrobials in both human and animal isolates was generally uncommon, but very high to extremely high MDR levels were observed in some Salmonella serovars. A minority of Salmonella isolates from animals belonging to a few serovars (notably Kentucky and Infantis) exhibited high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. 
antimicrobial resistance, zoonotic bacteria, indicator bacteria, ESBL
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