Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of 30 compounds (primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/ acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones belonging to chemical group 9) when used as flavourings for all animal species. All 30 compounds are currently authorised for use as flavours in food and have all been detected in plant materials, in fruits or in processed foods. However the reports of their distribution vary greatly.
The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound.
The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxovaleric acid, ethyl lactate, butyl lactate, butyl-O-butyryllactate, hex-3-enyl lactate, hexyl lactate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl 4-oxovalerate, diethylsuccinate and diethyl malonate are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use levels proposed when used as feed flavourings; octano-1,4-lactone, nonano-1,4-lactone, decano-1,4-lactone and undecano-1,4-lactone, and are safe at 20 mg/kg complete feed (with a margin of safety ranging from 1 to 3.5); butyro-1,4-lactone, pentano-1,4-lactone, hexano-1,4-lactone, heptano-1,4-lactone, octano-1,5-lactone, nonano-1,5-lactone, decano-1,5-lactone and undecano-1,5-lactone at 5 mg/kg complete feed (with a margin of safety ranging from 4 to 14); dodecano-1,4-lactone, dodecano-1,5-lactone, tetradecano-1,5-lactone, and pentadecano-1,15-lactone at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and of 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. The absence of a margin of safety would not allow the simultaneous administration in feed and water for drinking of these substances.
No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 9 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species.
The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat all compounds under assessment as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitizers.
The compounds considered to be safe for the target species are extensively metabolised by the target species and excreted as innocuous metabolites and carbon dioxide. Therefore no environmental risk assessment is considered necessary.
Since all 29 compounds are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.