Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of 34 compounds (branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes belonging to chemical group 2) when used as flavourings for all animal species. All 34 compounds are currently authorised for use as flavours in food and are found in plant materials, in fruits or in processed foods. However the reports of their distribution vary greatly.
The FEEDAP Panel concludes that 2-methylpropionic acid, isopentyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl butyrate and 2-methylbutyl acetate are safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals (with no margin of safety) and at 5 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry (with a margin of safety between 1.6 and 3.4); 2-methylpropan-1-ol, isopentanol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylvaleric acid, 2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid, 4-methyloctanoic acid, isobutyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, 3-methylbutyl propionate, 3-methylbutyl formate, glyceryl tributyrate, isobutyl isobutyrate, isopentyl isobutyrate, isobutyl isovalerate, isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate and 2-methylbutyl butyrate at the proposed use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for all animal species (with a margin of safety between 1.6 and 6); 3,7-dimethyloctan-1-ol, 2-methylundecanal, 4-methylnonanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl dodecanoate, 3-methylbutyl octanoate and 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food-producing animals and of 1.0 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry.
No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 2 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species.
The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat all compounds under assessment as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitizers.
The compounds considered to be safe for the target species are extensively metabolised by the target species and excreted as innocuous metabolites and carbon dioxide. Therefore no environmental risk assessment is considered necessary.
Since all 34 compounds are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.