European Union summary report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from animals and food in the European Union in 2009
The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have analysed the information on antimicrobial resistance among zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2009 submitted by 25 European Union Member States. This information covers antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates from humans, food and animals, and in indicator Escherichia coli and enterococci isolates from animals and food. Data on resistance in isolates from humans were mainly interpreted using clinical breakpoints, while for isolates from animals and food resistance was interpreted using the more sensitive epidemiological cut-off values. Resistance to antimicrobials was commonly found in isolates from humans, animals and food, although disparities in the occurrences of resistance were frequently observed between Member States. High resistance levels were recorded to ampicillin, tetracyclines and sulphonamides in Salmonella isolates from human cases, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, both critically important antimicrobial groups for human medicine, remained low. In Salmonella and indicator E. coli isolates from fowl, pigs, cattle and meat thereof, resistance to tetracyclines, ampicillin and sulphonamides was also commonly found, while resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was low. Moderate to high levels of ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) resistance was observed in Salmonella and indicator E. coli isolates from fowl, broiler meat and pigs. In Campylobacter isolates from human cases, resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was high, while resistance to erythromycin, a critically important antimicrobial, was recorded at a low level. High resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracyclines was also observed in Campylobacter isolates from fowl, broiler meat, pigs and cattle, whereas erythromycin resistance was at lower levels. Among the indicator enterococci isolates from animals and food, resistance to tetracyclines and erythromycin was commonly detected.