The <em>in vivo </em>genotoxicity studies on nivalenol and deoxynivalenol

nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity, Comet assay, micronucleus, Pig-a
First published in EFSA Supporting Publications
25 November 2014
Issued
24 November 2014
Type
External Scientific Report
Abstract

Nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are structurally related mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi. These fungi typically infest cereal crops such as wheat, maize, barley, oats and rye, and NIV and DON are regularly found in cereal grains, food and feed. Recent risk assessments identified possible data gaps for both DON and NIV in particular with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The overall objective of the project was to assess the genotoxicity of DON and NIV, including the identification of potential modes of action. A battery of in vivo genotoxicity tests was performed in mice: Comet assay with and without fpg in seven organs (duodenum, colon, blood, liver, spleen, kidney, bone marrow), micronucleus assay in bone marrow and colon, and Pig-a assay in peripheral blood. In addition, to clarify the genotoxic mode of action of both mycotoxins, we performed in vitro Comet assay studies in TK6 cells to investigate potential genotoxic oxidative stress induced by mycotoxins. The response in all the genotoxicity assays with NIV after three oral doses at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, were uniformly negative. In the case of DON, we found that DON failed to induce micronuclei formation in bone marrow and colon and failed to induce DNA damage in all organs observed by the Comet assay with and without fpg at 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg. The Pig-a assay with DON after three oral gavage doses at 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, did not show any mutagenic effect at day 28 and 45 after the last dose. In vitro studies indicated that both mycotoxins did not induce DNA damage in the Comet assay with or without fpg in TK6 cells even after GSH depletion. It was concluded that NIV and DON could be considered as devoid of genotoxic potential and pose no genotoxic or mutagenic risk.

Contact
contam [at] efsa.europa.eu
doi
10.2903/sp.efsa.2014.EN-697
Question Number
On request from
EFSA
Disclaimer
The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority and the author(s). The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It cannot be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European Food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.