A small application developed in R for the estimation of the residue intake rate for certain bee species under given conditions: the SHVAL tool

Question Number
27 May 2014
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EFSA (PRAS Unit) have been requested to provide a Guidance Document (GD) on bees, which was published in July 2013. The GD uses Shortcut Values (SVs) in the estimation of the oral risk to bees. SVs express the theoretical residue intake of the bees using information on the feed consumption and residue level in pollen and nectar. The sugar content of the nectar is also an important element.

The SHVAL tool presented in this report allow for an estimation, via simulation, of the Shortcut Value's 90th percentile and its 95% confidence interval.


The SHVAL tool, an application developed in R, presented in this report allows for the estimation of the Shortcut Value's 90th percentile and its 95% confidence interval.

The tool was thought to be reliable, flexible and user-friendly at the same time. The SHVAL tool allows for inputting raw data as well as reference values (central tendency measurements / ranges). It first fits theoretical distributions to the data, where possible, and then it runs a Monte Carlo simulation mimicking an hypothetical field study on 1000 fields with 1000 hives in each field and 1000 bees in each hive.

The SHVAL tool returns the probabilistic distributions fitted to the data and the empirical density distribution of the Shortcut Value's 90th percentile over the 1000 iterations (fields).

The tool is available to the public upon request. In order to receive the SHVAL tool and the user manual, it is necessary to properly fill in Appendix B. and send it to the following e-mail address: amu@efsa.europa.eu.

4 July 2014
Last Updated
22 July 2014