EFSA-ECDC report shows Campylobacter cases in humans on the rise, while salmonellosis is in decline; listeriosis remains of concern
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published their Community Zoonoses Report for 2007, which analyses the occurrence of infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. The Report shows that although figures varied considerably between Member States, Campylobacter infections still topped the list of zoonotic diseases in the European Union and that the number of cases due to Salmonella infections in humans fell for the fourth year in a row. Cases of listeriosis remained at the same level.
In 2007, infections from Campylobacter were again the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans across the European Union with 200,507 cases compared to 175,561 in the previous year, an increase of 14.2%. Regarding Salmonella, although the number of cases showed a decrease for a fourth successive year, 151,995 people were affected by the bacterium in 2007 compared to 164,011 in 2006. The number of Listeria infections in humans in 2007 remained at the same level as in 2006 with 1,554 confirmed cases; Listeria also showed the highest mortality rate, especially among vulnerable groups.
“The 2007 Zoonoses Report shows that many bacteria are still being transmitted from animals to our food. It is good to see that Salmonella is on the decline likely due to the control measures taken along the food chain. Campylobacter and Listeria in food are still of concern and need to be addressed,” EFSA’s Director of Scientific Cooperation, Hubert Deluyker said.
ECDC’s Head of Surveillance, Andrea Ammon, added: “Although tackling Salmonella and Campylobacter infections remains a top priority, we are particularly concerned by the high proportion of deaths amongst older people as a result of infection with Listeria. We have also noted a high proportion of new born babies among the cases of listeriosis. ECDC is working closely with EFSA in a joint effort to find out more about the transmission of Listeria infections and what prevention measures can be taken to reduce the number of cases and deaths”.
In foodstuffs, Campylobacter, which generally causes diarrhoea, cramps and fever in humans, was mostly found in raw poultry meat with an average of 26% of samples showing contamination. In live animals, Campylobacter was found in poultry, pigs and cattle.
Poultry and pig meat were reported as the foods most frequently associated with Salmonella, and on average 5.5 % of all fresh poultry meat samples within the European Union was found to be contaminated. Eggs and egg products were also found to be contaminated, while the bacterium was only rarely detected in raw dairy products, vegetables and fruits. In animal populations, Salmonella was most frequently detected in poultry flocks. In 2007, the Commission launched a new control programme against Salmonella in breeding poultry flocks and at the end of that year 15 Member States had already met the legal target of 1%, which is set for end 2009.
Listeria, although less frequent in humans compared to Campylobacter and Salmonella, showed a high mortality rate of 20%, particularly amongst vulnerable groups such as the elderly. Listeriosis is also very dangerous to pregnant women as it can cause foetal infections, miscarriages and stillbirths. Results showed some cases of Listeria above the legal safety limit in ready-to-eat foods, most often in smoked fish and other fishery products, followed by meat products and cheese.
The importance of a zoonosis as a human infection does not depend only on its incidence in the population, but also on its severity, as some may cause serious illnesses or have higher mortality rate, despite relatively low number of cases. This is the case for instance of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), which accounted for a total of 2,905 human infections in the European Union. Among animals and foodstuffs, VTEC was most often reported in cattle and bovine meat, and very rarely in vegetables. Also, the number of yersiniosis cases in humans in 2007 was 8,792, with the bacterium being found mostly in pigs and pig meat. The two parasitic zoonoses trichinellosis and echinococcosis were reported in 779 and 834 human infections respectively within the European Union. The report also provided data on other zoonotic diseases, such as brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis and rabies.
In 2007, 27 Member States submitted information on the occurrence of zoonoses and zoonotic agents to the European Commission and the European Food Safety Authority. Further information on zoonoses cases in humans was acquired from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. In addition, four countries that were not EU Member States provided information on zoonoses for the report. Assisted by its Zoonoses Collaboration Centre, the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control jointly analysed all data, the results of which are published in this annual Community Summary Report, which covers ten diseases.
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