Flavouring Group Evaluation 78 (FGE.78)[1] - Consideration of Aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives,Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)

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Article
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2009.931
Panel members at the time of adoption
Fernando Aguilar, Herman Nybro Autrup, Susan Barlow, Laurence Castle, Riccardo Crebelli, Wolfgang Dekant, Karl-Heinz Engel, Nathalie Gontard, David Michael Gott, Sandro Grilli, Rainer Gürtler, John Christian Larsen, Jean-Charles Leblanc, Catherine Leclercq, F. Xavier Malcata, Wim Mennes, Maria Rosaria Milana, Iona Pratt, Ivonne Magdalena Catharina Maria Rietjens, Paul P. Tobback, Fidel Toldrá.
Acknowledgements

The Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact
with Food wishes to thank Jørn Gry, Vibe Beltoft, Frederikke Bentzen, Pia Lund, Karin Nørby and
Trine Klein Reffstrup for their contribution to the draft Opinion.

Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2008-062
Adopted
6 March 2008
Published
20 January 2009
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
Download Article (615.78 KB)
Abstract

No abstract available

Summary

The Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (the Panel) is asked to advise the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular, the Panel is requested to consider the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA) evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000, and to decide whether no further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. These flavouring substances are listed in the Register, which was adopted by Commission Decision 1999/217/EC and its consecutive amendments.

The present consideration deals with 24 aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by the JECFA at their 63rd meeting.

The Panel concluded that the 24 substances in the JECFA flavouring are structurally related to the group of 32 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25 (FGE.25).

The Panel agrees with the application of the Procedure as performed by the JECFA for eight of the 24 substances considered in this FGE [FL-no: 01.002, 01.005, 01.006, 01.016, 01.019, 01.020, 01.045 and 01.077].

Two substances [FL-no: 01.011 and 01.013] are genotoxic in vitro and there are unresolved problems with potential carcinogenicity and therefore the Panel concluded that they cannot be taken through the Procedure.

For the following 14 substances [FL-no: 01.003, 01.004, 01.007, 01.008, 01.009, 01.010, 01.014, 01.017, 01.018, 01.024, 01.026, 01.029, 01.040 and 01.061] it cannot be concluded that they are metabolised to innocuous substances and therefore their evaluation must proceed along the B-side of the Procedure. For one substance, myrcene [FL-no: 01.008] in subgroup II, acyclic alkenes, the intake based on the Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake (MSDI) exceeds the threshold for the structural class (7100 µg/capita/day) and accordingly additional data must be available for the substance or a structurally related substance. For another substance, 1-isopropenyl-4-methylbenzene [FL-no: 01.010] from subgroup IVe: alkyl substituted benzene hydrocarbons, a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was available giving an adequate margin of safety compared to the estimated level of intake. For 13 substances no applicable NOAEL is available for the substance itself or on a structurally related compound and therefore further data are required.

For three substances [FL-no: 01.024, 01.029 and 01.040] the JECFA evaluation is only based on Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake (MSDI) derived from production figures from the USA. EU production figures are needed in order to finalise the evaluation of these substances.

For all substances evaluated through the Procedure use levels are needed to calculate the modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI) in order to identify those flavouring substances that need more refined exposure assessment and to finalise the evaluation.

In order to determine whether the conclusion for the 24 JECFA evaluated substances can be applied to the materials of commerce, it is necessary to consider the available specifications:

Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity tests are available for 10 of the 24 JECFA evaluated substances. For two substances [FL-no: 01.018 and 01.061] information on the isomeric composition is lacking and for 14 substances [FL-no: 01.004, 01.007, 01.008, 01.009, 01.017, 01.018, 01.019, 01.020, 01.024, 01.026, 01.029, 01.040, 01.045 and 01.061] further information on the composition of the mixture is requested.

Thus, for 14 substances [FL-no: 01.004, 01.007, 01.008, 01.009, 01.017, 01.018, 01.019, 01.020, 01.024, 01.026, 01.029, 01.040, 01.045 and 01.061] the Panel has reservations (no European production volumes available, preventing them from being evaluated using the Procedure, and/or missing information on stereoisomerism/composition of mixture). For two of the 24 JECFA evaluated substances the Procedure could not be applied [FL-no: 01.011 and 01.013] based on concern with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. For 13 of the 24 JECFA evaluated aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons [FL-no: 01.003, 01.004, 01.007, 01.008, 01.009, 01.014, 01.017, 01.018, 01.024, 01.026, 01.029, 01.040 and 01.061] additional toxicity data are requested. For the remaining six substances [FL-no: 01.002, 01.005, 01.006, 01.010, 01.016 and 01.077] the Panel agrees with the JECFA conclusion “no safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach.

Keywords
Safety, flavouring, aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic, hydrocarbons, JECFA, 63rd meeting