Search EFSA Journal
Refine your search
Type
All article types
Special Issue Item
Journal Editorial
Scientific opinions of Scientific/Scientific Panel
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
Statement of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
Guidance of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
Other scientific outputs of EFSA
Statement of EFSA
Guidance of EFSA
Conclusion on pesticides
Reasoned opinion on pesticide
Scientific report of EFSA
Technical Report
Subject
All subjects
Animal health & welfare
Biological hazards
Biological monitoring
Contaminants
Dietary & chemical monitoring
Emerging risks
Feed
Food Ingredients and Packaging
GMO
Nutrition
Pesticides
Plant health
Assessment and methodological support
Scientific Committee
Scientific cooperation
Article ID
Digital Object ID
Sort by:
Publication date
Relevance

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to tertiary-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ).

doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2004.84
  EFSA Panel on Food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC)
Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel Question number: EFSA-Q-2003-141 Adopted: 12 July 2004 Published: 11 October 2004 Last updated: 14 October 2004. This version replaces the previous one/s.
Abstract

No abstract available

Summary

The Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC) has been asked to advise on the safety in use of TBHQ (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) in fats and oils used for human consumption. TBHQ is intended to be used at a level of up to 200 mg/kg fat or oil.

TBHQ has already been evaluated by the former Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) which concluded in 1987 that there was still a need for additional data. The SCF requested an adequate carcinogenicity study and an in vivo mutagenicity study of germ cell effects. At that time, the SCF was of the opinion that TBHQ was not acceptable for use as an antioxidant to food and did not establish an acceptable daily intake (ADI). Since then additional data on carcinogenicity and mutagenicity have become available.

Based on the data reviewed the Panel concluded that TBHQ is not carcinogenic and that further genotoxicity studies were unnecessary. The Panel considers the dog as the most sensitive species and allocated an ADI of 0-0.7 mg/kg bw based on a no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of 72 mg/kg bw per day in dogs to which a 100-fold safety factor was applied.

Considering that not all fat intake in high fat eaters will come from refined oils, conservative intake estimates suggest that exposure in adults and children who are high fat eaters would not exceed the ADI. However, if TBHQ were allowed to be used in infant formulae and follow on formulae at the maximum amount requested, exposure in infants and children would exceed the ADI.

The formation of 2-tertiary-butyl-p-benzoquinone (TBBQ) is likely to be due to the antioxidant action of TBHQ and this compound would probably be reduced back to TBHQ to a certain extent when ingested. The formation of TBBQ from the use of TBHQ in food is not considered to be a matter of concern

Keywords

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food on a request from the Commission related to tertiary-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ).