Pest categorisation of non‐EU Scolytinae of coniferous hosts
The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of non‐EU Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) of coniferous hosts (hereafter NESC). NESC occur worldwide, and some species are important forest pests. Species can be identified using taxonomic keys and molecular methods. Most NESC species (bark beetles) live in the inner bark of their hosts (phloem and cambium), while the remaining species mostly colonise the sapwood (ambrosia beetles). Bark‐ and ambrosia beetles are often associated with symbiotic fungi, which behave as pathogens towards the host trees, or are used as food by ambrosia beetle larvae. The larvae live in individual tunnels or in communal chambers. Pupation occurs in the wood or in the bark. Some species are semi‐ or multivoltine, others are monovoltine. Some species attack and kill living, apparently healthy trees. Other species specialise in weakened, dying or dead trees. The pathways for entry are cut branches, cones, round wood with or without bark, sawn wood with or without bark, wood packaging material, bark, manufactured wood items and wood chips and plants for planting (including seeds) of conifers. Availability of host plants and suitable climate would allow the establishment in the EU of NESC. Measures are in place to prevent their introduction through the pathways described above. NESC satisfy all the criteria to be considered as Union quarantine pests. As NESC are not present in the EU and plants for planting are not their major pathway for spread, they do not meet the criteria to be considered as regulated non‐quarantine pests.