Safety and efficacy of l‐lysine monohydrochloride and concentrated liquid l‐lysine (base) produced by fermentation using Corynebacterium glutamicum strain KCCM 10227 for all animal species

nutritional additive, amino acid, lysine monohydrochloride, lysine base, safety, efficacy
First published in the EFSA Journal
2 May 2019
3 April 2019
Scientific Opinion


Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on l‐lysine monohydrochloride and concentrated liquid l‐lysine (base) produced using Corynebacterium glutamicum KCCM 10227 when used as nutritional additives in feed and water for drinking for all animal species. The active substance is l‐lysine. l‐lysine HCl and concentrated liquid l‐lysine (base) produced by the strain C. glutamicum KCCM 10227 do not represent a risk for the target species, the consumer and the environment. l‐lysine HCl produced by C. glutamicum KCCM 10227 is hazardous by inhalation, it is not irritant to skin but mildly irritant to eyes and it is not a skin sensitiser. Concentrated liquid l‐lysine (base) produced by C. glutamicum KCCM 10227 is hazardous by inhalation, not irritant to skin and eyes and it is not a skin sensitiser. l‐lysine HCl and concentrated liquid l‐lysine (base) are considered as efficacious sources of the essential amino acid l‐lysine for non‐ruminant animal species. For the supplemental l‐lysine to be as efficacious in ruminants as in non‐ruminant species, it would require protection against degradation in the rumen.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Gabriele Aquilina, Giovanna Azimonti, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Marta López‐Alonso, Secundino López Puente, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Robert John Wallace and Pieter Wester.
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
feedap [at]
EFSA Journal 2019;17(5):5697
Question Number
On request from
European Commission
Relevant information or parts of this scientific output have been blackened in accordance with the confidentiality requests formulated by the applicant pending a decision thereon by the European Commission. The full output has been shared with the European Commission, EU Member States and the applicant. The blackening will be subject to review once the decision on the confidentiality requests is adopted by the European Commission.