Pest categorisation of Ips typographus
The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. typographus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) in Eurasia. It also attacks other conifers such as Abies spp., Larix spp., Pinus spp. and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Native to Eurasia, I. typographus has spread from the native range of spruce to new areas in Eurasia where spruce has been planted, and is now widely distributed throughout the EU (22 Member states). It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC for Ireland and United Kingdom as protected zones. Coniferous wood, bark and wood packaging material are considered as pathways for the pest, which is also able to disperse by flight over tens of kilometres. The insects normally establish on fallen trees but can also mass-attack healthy trees, killing millions of spruces. The males produce pheromones that attract conspecifics of both sexes. Each male attracts one to four females; each female produces 2–80 offspring. The insects also inoculate pathogenic fungi to their hosts. There are one to three generations per year. The wide current geographic range of I. typographus suggests that it is able to establish anywhere in the EU where its hosts are present. Sanitary thinning or clear-felling are the major control methods. Pheromone mass trapping is presently judged unreliable because of the large dispersal capacity of the pest. Quarantine measures are implemented to prevent entry in yet uncolonised areas. All criteria assessed by EFSA for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest are met. The criteria for considering I. typographus as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not a pathway.