Safety and efficacy of aromatic ketones, secondary alcohols and related esters belonging to chemical group 21 when used as flavourings for all animal species

sensory additives, feed flavourings, aromatic ketones, secondary alcohols, related esters, chemical group 21, safety
First published in the EFSA Journal
23 August 2016
12 July 2016
Last Updated
12 October 2016. This version replaces the previous one/s.
Scientific Opinion


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of 10 compounds belonging to chemical group 21 (aromatic ketones, secondary alcohols and related esters). They are currently authorised as flavours in food. This opinion concerns eight compounds from this group. The FEEDAP Panel established the following conclusions: 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one [07.055] is safe at 25 mg/kg complete feed for all target species except chickens for fattening, laying hens and cats, for which 5 mg/kg is considered safe; acetophenone [07.004] at 25 mg/kg for salmonids, veal calves and dogs, and at 5 mg/kg for the remaining target species (4.4 mg/kg for cats); vanillyl acetone [07.005] and 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-butan-2-one [07.029] at 5 mg/kg for all target species; 1-phenylethan-1-ol [02.064], 4-methylacetophenone [07.022], 4-methoxyacetophenone [07.038] and 1-phenethyl acetate [09.178] at 5 mg/kg for all species, except cats for which 1 mg/kg is considered safe. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of these compounds up to the highest proposed level in feeds. Hazards for skin and eye contact and respiratory exposure are recognised for the majority of the compounds under application. Most are classified as irritating to the respiratory system. The proposed maximum use levels in feed are unlikely to have detrimental effects on the terrestrial and fresh water environments, with the exceptions of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one [07.029] and 1-phenethyl acetate [09.178] for which the normal use levels are considered safe. For 1-phenylethan-1-ol [02.064], it was not possible to reach a conclusion on the safety for the terrestrial compartment. Because all the compounds under assessment are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

Panel members at the time of adoption

Gabriele Aquilina, Giovanna Azimonti, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Secundino López Puente, Marta López-Alonso, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Robert John Wallace and Pieter Wester
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
feedap [at]
EFSA Journal 2016;14(8):4557
Question Number
On request from
European Commission