Re-evaluation of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (E 444) as a food additive

sucrose acetate isobutyrate, food additive, E 444, SAIB, CAS Registry Number 126-13-6, EINECS number 204-771-6
First published in the EFSA Journal
25 May 2016
26 April 2016
Scientific Opinion
The EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB, E 444) as a food additive. The SCF allocated an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 10 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day in 1994. JECFA established an ADI of 20 mg/kg bw per day in 1997. Both the JECFA and the SCF concluded that the hepatic effects observed in the dog have little relevance to the safety evaluation in humans. The Panel agreed with this conclusion. Oral absorption is approximately 70% in rats, about 50% in dogs and ≥ 88% in humans. The Panel concluded that SAIB does not raise concern for genotoxicity. No treatment-related effects have been observed on clinical signs, haematology and clinical chemistry in humans at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw per day for 14 days. The Panel identified a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 2,000 mg/kg bw per day, the highest dose tested, from chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental studies in rats. Applying an uncertainty factor of 100, an ADI of 20 mg/kg bw per day for SAIB can be established. Overall, the Panel concluded that the present data set on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, genotoxicity, subchronic, developmental and long-term toxicity, and carcinogenicity give reason to revise the ADI of 10 mg/kg bw per day allocated by the SCF in 1994 to 20 mg/kg bw per day. Considering that the ADI is not exceeded in any population group, the Panel also concluded that the use of SAIB (E 444) as a food additive at the permitted or reported use and use levels would not be of safety concern.
Panel members at the time of adoption
Fernando Aguilar, Riccardo Crebelli, Alessandro Di Domenico, Birgit Dusemund, Maria Jose Frutos, Pierre Galtier, David Gott, Ursula Gundert-Remy, Claude Lambré, Jean-Charles Leblanc, Oliver Lindtner, Peter Moldeus, Alicja Mortensen, Pasquale Mosesso, Dominique Parent-Massin, Agneta Oskarsson, Ivan Stankovic, Ine Waalkens-Berendsen, Rudolf Antonius Woutersen, Matthew Wright and Maged Younes
Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food
fip [at]
EFSA Journal 2016;14(5):4489
Question Number
On request from
European Commission