Safety and efficacy of copper complexes of chlorophylls for ornamental fish, grain-eating ornamental birds and small rodents and of copper complexes of chlorophyllins for all animal species

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Article
Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2016;14(2):4391 [17 pp.].
doi
10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4391
Panel members at the time of adoption
Gabriele Aquilina, Giovanna Azimonti, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Secundino López Puente, Marta López-Alonso, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Robert John Wallace and Pieter Wester.
Acknowledgements

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Colouring Agents, including Lucio Guido Costa, Anne-Katrine Lundebye and Derek Renshaw for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion.

Contact
feedap@efsa.europa.eu
Type
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
EFSA-Q-2010-01524
Adopted
26 January 2016
Published
11 February 2016
Affiliation
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Note
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Abstract

Copper complexes of chlorophylls are applied as colourants used for ornamental fish, grain-eating ornamental birds and small rodents (subgroup: substances which favourably affect the colour of ornamental fish or birds). Copper complexes of chlorophyllins are applied as a colourant to add colour to feedingstuffs of cats and dogs and all animal species and for all animal species for use in certain groups of feed materials. In the absence of adequate data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, genotoxicity, subchronic and chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity of copper  complexes of chlorophyllins, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) could not conclude on the safety of this additive for the consumer. No data on the tolerance of target animals were provided. In the absence of adequate toxicological data that would allow deriving a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and to exclude the genotoxic potential, the FEEDAP Panel could not conclude on the safety of copper complex of chlorophylls and copper complex of chlorophyllins for the target animals. In the absence of data the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the safety for the user of the additives. No risks to the environment are expected from the use of copper complexes of chlorophylls or copper complexes of chlorophyllins in animal nutrition. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to conclude (i) on the efficacy of copper complexes of chlorophylls to colour ornamental fish, grain-eating ornamental birds and small rodents, and (ii) on the concentrations of copper complexes of chlorophylls and of chlorophyllins necessary to visibly colour feed of cats and dogs, ornamental birds, small rodents and certain feed materials for all animal species.

Summary

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper complexes of chlorophylls and copper complexes of chlorophyllins.

Copper complexes of chlorophylls are applied as colourants used for ornamental fish, grain-eating ornamental birds and small rodents (subgroup: substances which favourably affect the colour of ornamental fish or birds). Copper complexes of chlorophyllins are applied as a colourant to add colour to feedingstuffs of cats and dogs and all animal species, and for all animal species for use in certain groups of feed materials.

In the absence of adequate data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, genotoxicity, subchronic and chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity of copper  complexes of chlorophyllins, the FEEDAP Panel could not conclude on the safety of this additive for the consumer.

No data on the tolerance of target animals were provided. In the absence of adequate toxicological data that would allow deriving a no observed adverse effect level and to exclude the genotoxic potential, the FEEDAP Panel could not conclude on the safety of copper complex of chlorophylls and copper complex of chlorophyllins for the target animals.

In the absence of data, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the safety for the user of the additives.

No risks to the environment are expected from the use of copper complexes of chlorophylls or copper complexes of chlorophyllins in animal nutrition.

The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to conclude (i) on the efficacy of copper complexes of chlorophylls to colour ornamental fish, grain-eating ornamental birds and small rodents, and (ii) on the doses of copper complexes of chlorophylls and of chlorophyllins necessary to visibly colour feed of cats and dogs, ornamental birds, small rodents and certain feed materials for all animal species.

Keywords
copper complexes of chlorophylls, copper complexes of chlorophyllins, colourant, safety, efficacy
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Number of Pages
17