Safety and efficacy of concentrated liquid L-lysine (base), L-lysine monohydrochloride and L-lysine sulphate produced using different strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by AMAC/EEIG


Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2016;14(3):4346 [3 pp.].
Panel Members
Gabriele Aquilina, Vasileios Bampidis, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Georges Bories, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Gerhard Flachowsky, Jürgen Gropp, Boris Kolar, Maryline Kouba, Secundino López Puente, Marta López-Alonso, Alberto Mantovani, Baltasar Mayo, Fernando Ramos, Guido Rychen, Maria Saarela, Roberto Edoardo Villa, Robert John Wallace and Pieter Wester.
The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Amino Acids and Vitamins, including Lucio Costa, Noël Dierick and Lubomir Leng, as well as the former WG members Paul Brantom and Giovanna Martelli, and the members of the Working Group on Genetically Modified Microorganisms of FEEDAP, including Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Boet Glandorf, Lieve Herman, Sirpa Kärenlampi and Christoph Tebbe, for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion. 
Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
2 December 2015
Published in the EFSA Journal
11 March 2016
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy

Concentrated liquid L-lysine (base) and L-lysine HCl, produced by genetically modified (GM) strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, and L-lysine sulphate (solid and liquid) produced by non-GM strains of C. glutamicum, were the subject of this application. The use of L-lysine HCl produced by the GM C. glutamicum ‘A’ in animal nutrition was considered a hazard due to the presence of a recombinant antibiotic resistance gene. The use in animal nutrition of concentrated liquid L-lysine (base) produced using C. glutamicum ‘A’ was considered of no concern for the target species, consumer and the environment. The FEEDAP Panel could not conclude on the safety of concentrated liquid L-lysine (base) and L-lysine HCl produced by the GM C. glutamicum ‘B’ or ‘C’ for the target animals, consumers and environment due to the absence of adequate data on the absence of the production strain or its recombinant DNA in the products. The identity of strain ‘C’ as C. glutamicum was also not confirmed.  For L-lysine sulphate originating from non-GM strains C. glutamicum ‘D’, ‘E’ or ‘F’, the FEEDAP Panel could not conclude on the safety for the target species, the consumer and the environment due to uncertainties that these products might contain antibiotic resistance genes. In addition, the intrinsic high sulphate content in those products might have the potential to cause adverse effects in target species. The FEEDAP Panel reiterated its concerns on the safety of the administration of amino acids, including L-lysine, via water for drinking because of the risk of imbalances and for hygiene reasons. Due to the uncertainties described above, the FEEDAP Panel could not conclude on the safety for users or the environment of all products under assessment except concentrated liquid L-lysine (base) produced using C. glutamicum ‘A’. The products under assessment would be considered efficacious sources of L-lysine for non-ruminant species. For these sources of supplemental L-lysine to be as efficacious in ruminants as in non-ruminant species, they would require protection against degradation in the rumen.

nutritional additive, amino acids, concentrated liquid L-lysine base, concentrated liquid L-lysine HCl, L-lysine HCl, L-lysine sulphate, safety and efficacy
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