Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for phosphorus


Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies
EFSA Journal
EFSA Journal 2015;13(7):4185 [54 pp.].
Panel members at the time of adoption
Carlo Agostoni, Roberto Berni Canani, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marina Heinonen, Hannu Korhonen, Sébastien La Vieille, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Androniki Naska, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Grażyna Nowicka, Yolanda Sanz, Alfonso Siani, Anders Sjödin, Martin Stern, Sean (J.J.) Strain, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé, Dominique Turck and Hans Verhagen.

The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Dietary Reference Values for minerals: Peter Aggett, Carlo Agostoni, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Marianne Geleijnse, Ambroise Martin, Harry McArdle, Androniki Naska, Hildegard Przyrembel and Alfonso Siani for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion and EFSA staff: Anja Brönstrup, Sofia Ioannidou and Liisa Valsta for the support provided to this scientific opinion.

Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel
On request from
European Commission
Question Number
30 June 2015
Published in the EFSA Journal
28 July 2015
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for phosphorus. The Panel considered data from balance studies, losses of phosphorus from the body and intestinal absorption for possible use in a factorial approach, and studies on phosphorus intake and long-term health outcomes. The Panel concluded that these data were insufficient for setting DRVs for phosphorus. Data on the calcium to phosphorus ratio in bones of healthy adults, adjusted for the proportion of phosphorus found outside bone, and data on whole-body calcium and phosphorus contents in Caucasian adults indicate that the calcium to phosphorus molar ratio in the body ranges from 1.4:1 to 1.9:1. Although the fractional absorption of phosphorus is higher than that of calcium, the Panel considered that the actual amounts of calcium and phosphorus that are available for absorption from the diet cannot be determined; therefore, the whole-body calcium to phosphorus ratio was used to set DRVs. The data were considered insufficient to derive Average Requirements and Population Reference Intakes. Based on the DRVs for calcium and considering a molar calcium to phosphorus ratio of 1.4:1 to 1.9:1, amounts of phosphorus were calculated. The Panel chose the lower bound of this range (a ratio of 1.4:1, which results in a higher phosphorus intake value) for setting an Adequate Intake (AI), taking into account estimated phosphorus intakes in Western countries, which are considerably higher than the values calculated. The AI is 160 mg/day for infants (7–11 months) and between 250 and 640 mg/day for children. For adults, the AI is 550 mg/day. Taking into consideration adaptive changes in phosphorus metabolism that occur during pregnancy and lactation, it was considered that the AI for adults also applies to pregnant and lactating women.

phosphorus, calcium, molar ratio, Adequate Intake, Dietary Reference Value
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